# Digital Electronics-2

AIMS
• To be able to acquire the knowledge & skill on counters, shift registers and
their applications.
• To be able to acquire the knowledge & skill on semiconductor memories & ALU
• To be able to acquire the knowledge & skill on A/D and D/A converters
• To familiarize with PLD & simple computer (SAP-1)

SHORT DESCRIPTION
Sequential system concept; Flip-flops; Registers & counters;
Semiconductor Memories; A/D & D/A converters, PLD and SAP-1.

DETAIL DESCRIPTION

Theory:

1. Understand the clocked Flip Flops.
1.1 Describe the operation of sequential logic system with block diagram.
1.2 Define the synchronous and asynchronous sequential logic circuit.
1.3 State the concept of level clocking and edge triggering.
1.4 Explain the operation of clocked SR Flip Flop.
1.5 State the advantages of edge triggering in Flip Flop.
1.6 Explain the operation of clocked D, T, JK and Master-slave Flip Flops.
1.7 Describe the operation of RS Flip Flop as a de-bounce switch.
1.8 Describe the operation of Flip Flop as a frequency division circuit.
1.9 State the application field of Flip Flops.

2. Understand registers and its application.
2.1 Define register.
2.2 Mention different types of registers.
2.3 Mention the use of shift registers.
2.4 List the different types of common shift register IC chips
2.5 Describe the operation of buffer register.
2.6 Explain the basic principle of operation of serial in – serial out shift registers.
2.7 Explain the operation of parallel in- parallel out shift registers.
2.8 Describe the operation of left shift, right shift and universal shift registers.
2.9 Describe the states (both two and three) of registers.

3. Understand the binary counter circuits.
3.1 Define binary counter.
3.2 State the difference between asynchronous and synchronous counter.
3.3 Explain the operation of asynchronous, synchronous and decade counter.
3.4 State the modulus of a counter.
3.5 Describe the principle of divide – by- n counter.
3.6 Describe the operation of a binary up – down counter.
3.7 State the principle of ring & Johnson counter.
3.8 State the application of different types of counters.
3.9 Describe the operation of digital clock.

4. Understand semiconductor memories.
4.1 List the type of memories.
4.2 Describe the principle of serial and parallel access memory.
4.3 Explain the internal organization of semiconductor memory.
4.4 Describe the technique of memory addressing.
4.5 Explain the read and write operation of semiconductor memory.
4.6 Explain the principle of static and dynamic RAM.
4.7 Describe the principle and operation of ROM, PROM, EPROM and EEPROM.
4.8 List the application of some commercial memory ICs.

5. Understand arithmetic logic circuit.
5.1 Mention the basic principle of ALU.
5.2 List the application of ALU.
5.3 Identify some commercial ALU chips.
5.4 Mention the principle of digital comparators.
5.5 Mention the principle of binary rate multiplier with block diagram.
5.6 List the application of digital comparators.
5.7 Identify some commercial comparators and binary rate multiplier ICS.

6. Understand D/A converter.
6.1 Mention the principle of level conversion.
6.2. Describe the principle of D/A conversion.
6.3 Mention the types of D/A converter.
6.4 Explain the operation of a binary weighted D/A and R-2R ladder D/A converter.
6.5 State the terms – resolution, percentage resolution, and accuracy,
offset error and settling time as specification of D/A converter.
6.6 Solve problems on resolution, full scale output current, output voltage
and accuracy of D/A converter.
6.7 State the application field of D/A converter.
6.8 List the application of popular D/A converter ICS.

7. Understand A/D converter.
7.1 State the general principle of A/D conversion
7.2 List the type of A/D converter.
7.3 State the working principle of 3-bit parallel A/D converter.
7.4 Describe the operation of Digital Ramp A/D converter
7.5 Explain the operation of successive approximation, dual slope and Flash A/D converter.
7.6 State the terms – resolution, accuracy, and conversion time as
specification of A/D converter.
7.7 List the applications of popular A/D converter ICS.
7.8 Describe the operation of sample & hold circuits and its application.

8. Understand the programmable logic devices.
8.1 Defines PLD.
8.2 State the advantages of PLD.
8.3 Describe the principle of PLD.
8.4 Discuss simplified logic diagram of PLA, PAL and GAL.
8.5 Describe the architecture of two input PLA, PAL and GAL.
8.6 State the basic feature of FPGA.
8.7 Describe the programming process SPDL
8.8 Describe the complex programmable logic device (CPDL).
8.9 Interpret standard PAL and GAL numbering.

9. Understand the organization of a SAP-1
9.1 State the meaning of SAP.
9.2 State the function of each stage of SAP-1 with block diagram.
9.3 State the function of control signals i.e. Enable, Load, Clock and
9.4 Clear of each register.
9.5 State the instruction for accessing and storing data in RAM of SAP-1.
9.6 Describe the bus organization of SAP- 1.

10. Understand the Micro and Macro Instruction of SAP-1
10.1 Describe the function of controller sequencer.
10.2 State the control word/micro instruction of controller sequencer.
10.3 State the meaning of macro instructions and their corresponding
binary op-code used in SAP-1
10.4 State the concept of machine cycle, fetch cycle, execution cycle and
instruction cycle
10.5 Describe the fetching steps of micro instruction in different T states.
10.6 Describe the execution steps of micro instruction in different T states.

Practical:
1. To prepare the clocked RS, D, T, JK & Master-slave flip-flops and check its
truth table/operations.
2. To prepare different types of shift registers and check its operation.
3. To prepare different types of counter and check its operation.
4. To prepare an asynchronous binary counter and check the output.
5. To prepare a synchronous decade counter and check the output.
6. Check the operation of ALU.
7. To show the read / write operation of a 4 bit memory chip.
8. To show the D/A conversion procedure of D/A converter.
9. To show the A/D conversion procedure of A/D converter.
10. To the operation of digital clock
11. To the operation of digital volmeter.
12. Construct and verify the operation of SPLD by using logic gates.

REFERENCE BOOKS
1. Digital principles and application
− A P Malvino
2. Digital Computer Electronics
− A P Malvino
3. Digital System
− Tocci
4. Modern Digital Electronics
– R. P. Jain
5. Digital Fundamentals.
− FLOYD

6745 ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS AND MACHINES T P C
2 3 3

AIMS
• To provide understanding and skill on AC circuits.
• To develop concept on polyphase system.
• To familiarize with the construction and operating principle of transformer.
• To develop understanding on the principles of DC motor.
• To develop knowledge and skill on 3-phase and 1-phase induction motor.
• To develop understanding on the principle of synchronous motor.

SHORT DESCRIPTION
Complex algebra  application to AC circuits; RLC series and parallel circuits; Polyphase system; Star and delta connection; Transformer; Rotating electrical machines; DC motor; 3-phase induction motor; 1-phase induction motor; Synchronous motor and stepper motor.

DETAIL DESCRIPTION

Theory :

1 Apply the Principle of Vector and Vector Quantities.
1.1 Define Vector Quantities.
1.2 Explain the Vector representation of alternating voltage and current.
1.3 Explain the Vector in polar and rectangular form.
1.4 Formulate the relation between Vectors Expressed in rectangular and polar co-ordinate.
1.5 Solve problems related to Vector sum and difference, multiplication and division.

2 Apply the concept of AC series circuit containing resistor, Inductor and Capacitor.
2.1 Draw the circuit containing resistor, Inductor and Capacitor.
2.2 Draw the Vector diagram RLC series circuit.
2.3 Compute the results of RLC series circuit in cartesian form and polar form notation.
2.4 Solve problems of RLC series circuit in rectangular co-ordinate system and polar co-ordinate system.
2.5 Draw the circuit containing resistor, Inductor and Capacitor In parallel.
2.6 Draw the Vector diagram of RLC parallel circuit.
2.7 compute the results of parallel AC circuit in cartesian form and polar form notation.
2.8 Solve problems on parallel Ac circuit in cartesian form and polar form notation.

3 Understand the application of complex algebra for power calculation.
3.1 Calculate power employing complex form.
3.2 Calculate VAR employing complex form.
3.3 Describe the conjugate method of calculating real power.
3.4 Describe the conjugate method of calculating reactive power.

POLYPHASE SYSTEM
4 Understand the concept of poly-phase system.
4.1 State the term poly-phase system.
4.2 List the advantages of poly-phase system over single phase system.
4.3 State the generation of poly-phase emf.
4.4 Sketch the phase voltage wave diagram.
4.5 Identify the phase sequence of poly-phase system.
4.6 State the effects of reverse phase sequence.
4.7 Explain the methods of checking phase sequence.
4.8 Sketch the phase sequence diagram of 3-phase voltage.

5 Apply the concept of polyphase for interconnection.
5.1 Write down possible ways of interconnection of three phase system.
5.2 Draw the circuit diagram of star connected 3-phase, 3-wire system.
5.3 List the application of 3-phase, 3-wire, star connected system.
5.4 Sketch 3-phase, 4-wire, star connection system.
5.5 List application of 3-phase, 4-wire star connection system.
5.6 Draw the vector diagram of 3-phase, 4-wire, star connection system.
5.7 Interpret the relation between line and phase voltage and current in a balanced 3-phase, 3-wire, star connection system.
5.8 Simplify the relation between line and phase voltage and current in a balanced 3-phase, 4-wire star connection system.

6 Understand the function of 3-phase star connection system.

6.1 Define Balance and Unbalance System
6.2 Identify neutral wire in a 3-phase star connection system.
6.3 Evaluate the current in the neutral wire in an unbalanced 3-phase, 4-wire, star connected system.
6.4 Draw the phasor diagram of 3-phase, 4-wire star connected system.
6.5 Discuss the formula IL = IP and VL = Vp
6.6 Calculate volt-ampere, power and power factor in a balanced 3-phase, 4-wire star connected system.
6.7 Solve problems on star connected (balanced and unbalanced) power system.

7 Understand the features of 3-phase delta connection system.
7.1 Draw the circuit diagram of a 3-phase delta connected system.
7.2 Draw the phasor diagram of delta connected system.
7.3 Express the deduction of the formula VL = VP and IL = IP for connected system.
7.4 Simplify the relation between line and phase current & voltage in a balanced delta connected system.
7.5 Calculate the volt-ampere, power and power factor in a balanced 3-phase, delta connected system.
7.6 Solve problems on delta connected balanced system.
7.7 Compare the advantages of star connected system with those of delta connected system.

TRANSFORMER
8 Understand the principle of operation of transformer.
8.1 Define transformer.
8.2 Explain the working principle of transformer.
8.3 Explain the emf equation of a transformer.
8.4 Explain no load operation of transformer.
8.5 Explain operation of transformer at load condition.
8.6 Solve problems related.
9 Understand the constructional features of transformer.
9.1 Describe the constructional features of transformer.
9.2 Identify different types of transformer.
9.3 List the uses of transformer.
9.4 Explain transformation ratio (voltage, current and turns).
9.5 Solve problems on transformation ratio.

10 Understand the concept of losses, efficiency and voltage regulation of transformer.
10.1 Explain different losses in transformer.
10.2 Explain the factors affecting core loss and copper loss.
10.3 Explain the equation for maximum efficiency.
10.4 Explain the open circuit test and short circuit test of a transfoer.
10.5 Solve problems on efficiency and maximum efficiency.
10.6 Explain the equation for voltage regulation of transformer.
10.7 Solve problems on voltage regulation of transformer.

DC MOTOR
11 Understand the principle of DC motor.
11.1 Explain the working principle of DC motor.
11.2 Explain generator action of motor.
11.3 Explain the term torque, running torque and break down torque.
11.4 Explain the torque equation of motor.
11.5 Describe the constructional features of DC motor.
11.6 Explain the function of commutator.

12 Understand the characteristics of DC motor.
12.1 Identify different types of DC motor.
12.2 Explain the performance characteristics of different types of DC motor.
12.3 Describe starting methods of DC motor.
12.4 Describe speed control of DC motor.

INDUCTION MOTOR
13 Understand the principle of induction motor.
13.1 Explain the general principle of induction motor.
13.2 Distinguish between the principles of induction motor and conduction motor.
13.3 Define sleep and sleep speed.
13.4 Identify the types of induction motor.
13.5 List the uses of induction motor.

THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
14 Understand the working principle of 3-phase induction motor.
14.1 Explain the construction of 3-phase induction motor.
14.2 Explain the construction of a 3 phase squirrel case induction motor.
14.3 Explain the construction of a 3 phase wound rotor induction motor.
14.4 State the production of rotating magnetic field in a 3-phase induction motor.
14.5 Describe the methods of starting 3-phase induction motor.
14.6 State the principles of speed control of 3-phase induction motor.

SINGLE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
15 Understand the working principle of 1-phase induction motor.
15.1 Explain working principle of 1-phase induction motor.
15.2 Explain the self starting method of single phase motor.
15.3 Describe the principles of operation of standard split phase motor.
15.4 Describe the principles of operation of capacitor motor.
15.5 Describe the principles of operation of shaded pole motor and repulsion motor.
15.6 Identify hysteresis motor, universal motor, reluctance motor and AC series motor.
15.7 Mention the methods of speed control of single phase induction motor.

SPECIAL MOTORS
16 Understand the working principle of synchronous motor and Stepper motor.
16.1 Explain the principle of operation of synchronous motor.
16.2 Describe the constructional features of synchronous motor.
16.3 Describe the starting methods of synchronous motor.
16.4 Explain the working principle of stepper motor.
16.5 List the different types of stepper motor.
16.6 Describe construction of different stepper motors.

Practical :

1 Determine the value of resistance, inductance & capacitance and draw vector diagram of RLC series circuit.
1.1 Sketch the circuit diagram for RLC series circuit.
1.2 Select equipment, tools & materials for the experiment.
1.3 Connect the circuit according to the circuit diagram.
1.4 Check all connection points before energizing the circuit.
1.5 Record the readings from the meter connecting power supply to the circuit.
1.6 Find the values of resistance, inductance, capacitance and phase angle from the relevant data.
1.7 Verify the impressed voltage is equal to the vector sum of voltage drops in each parameter.
1.8 Sketch the vector diagram with the help of relevant data as obtained.

2 Determine the values of resistance, inductance, capacitance and draw the vector diagram of RLC parallel circuit.
2.1 Sketch the circuit diagram for RLC parallel circuit.
2.2 Select equipment, tools & materials for the experiment.
2.3 Connect the circuit according to the circuit diagram.
2.4 Check all connection points before energize the circuit.
2.5 Record the readings from the meter connecting power supply to the circuit.
2.6 Find the value of resistance, inductance, capacitance and phase angle from the relevant data.
2.7 Verify the line current is equal to the vector sum of branch currents.
2.8 Sketch the vector diagram with the relevant data as obtained.

3 Demonstrate poly-phase power system and identify phase sequence.
3.1 Sketch the circuit diagram of a poly-phase power system showing phase sequence.
3.2 Select equipment, tools & materials for the experiment.
3.3 Study and connect the poly-phase system.
3.4 Observe the voltages by voltmeter.
3.5 Observe the phase voltages by oscilloscope.
3.6 Compute phase sequence.

4 Measure line and phase voltage & current in a 3-phase star connected inductive load.
4.1 Sketch the circuit diagram for 3-phase star connected load.
4.2 Select equipment, tools & materials for the experiment.
4.3 Connect the circuit according to the circuit diagram
4.4 Check all connection points before connecting power supply.
4.5 Record the readings of instruments.
4.6 Compare the recorded values with calculated values.
4.7 Note down the observations remarks.

5 Measure line and phase current & voltage in 3-phase delta connected inductive load.
5.1 Sketch the circuit diagram for 3-phase delta connected load.
5.2 Select equipment, tools & materials for the experiment.
5.3 Connect the circuit according to the circuit diagram.
5.4 Check all connection points before connecting power supply.
5.5 Record the readings of the instruments.
5.6 Compare the recorded values with calculated values.
5.7 Note down the observations.

6 Measure current, voltage and power in a balanced 3-phase star connected inductive load and construction of vector diagram.
6.1 Sketch the circuit diagram for measuring power by 3 watt meters of a 3-phase system.
6.2 Select equipment, tools & materials for the experiment.
6.3 Connect the circuit according to the circuit diagram.
6.4 Check all connection points and equipment & instruments before actual operation.
6.5 Record the readings from the meters in the circuit.
6.6 Calculate the power from the formula
Pt = W1 + W2 + W3 and 3VpIp Cos 
6.7 Draw the vector diagram using relevant data as obtained.
6.8 Note down the observations.

7 Measure current, voltage and power in a balanced 3-phase delta connected inductive load and construction of vector diagram.
7.1 Draw the circuit diagram for measuring power by 3-watt meter method of 3-phase delta connected load.
7.2 Select equipment, tools & materials for the experiment.
7.3 Connect the circuit according to the circuit diagram.
7.4 Check all connections, equipment and instruments before actual operation.
7.5 Record the reading from the meters used in the circuit.
7.6 Calculate the power from the formula
Pt = W1 + W2 + W3 and Pt = VILLLI Cos
7.7 Draw the vector diagram using obtained data.
7.8 Note down the observations.

8 Find the transformation ratio of a transformer.
8.1 Develop a circuit to perform the experiment.
8.2 Select required equipment and materials.
8.3 Connect the components according to the circuit diagram.
8.4 Check the connections.
8.5 Record the primary (EP) and secondary (ES) voltages.
8.6 Calculate the transformation ratio using the relation
ESEP = NSNP = K
8.7 Note down the observations.

9 Perform open circuit test of a single phase transformer.
9.1 Select the circuit diagram for the experiment.
9.2 Select required, equipment, tools and materials.
9.3 Connect all the equipment according to the circuit diagram.
9.4 Connect the low side to its rated voltage to the power supply keeping high side open.
9.6 Calculate required data.
9.7 Draw no load vector diagram with the data obtained.
9.8 Note down the observations.

10 Perform short circuit test of a single phase transformer.
10.1 Select the required circuit diagram for the experiment.
10.2 Select required, equipment, tools and materials.
10.3 Connect the equipment according to the circuit diagram.
10.4 Energize the circuit by applying reduced voltage.
10.5 Record copper loss and calculate Re , Xe and Ze.
10.6 Note down the observations.
11 Construct load versus speed characteristic curve of DC shunt motor.
11.1 Draw the required circuit diagram for the experiment.
11.2 Select the instrument and materials required.
11.3 Connect all the instrument’s according to diagram.
11.4 Take the necessary data from the connected instruments.
11.5 Draw the required curve.
11.6 Note down the observations.
12 Study the components/parts of a 3-phase induction motor.
12.1 Prepare a list of the parts of a 3-phase induction motor.
12.2 Dismantle the components/parts of the motor.
12.3 Develop sketches of each part.
12.4 Sketch the developed diagram of the windings of the motor.
12.5 Assemble the dismantled parts.
12.6 Note down the observations.

13 Operate a 3-phase induction motor.
13.1 Sketch the circuit diagram.
13.2 Select required, equipment, tools and materials.
13.3 Connect starter with motor.
13.4 Connect power supply to the circuit.
13.5 Observe the operation.
13.6 Measure the speed of the rotor.
13.7 Note down the observations.

14 Start a 1-phase capacitor type motor/ceiling fan with regulator.
14.1 Select the equipment and tools required for the experiment.
14.2 Sketch a working diagram.
14.3 Identify the two sets of coils.
14.4 Connect the capacitor with the proper set of coil.
14.5 Connect power supply to the fan motor.
14.6 Test the rotation of the motor opposite direction by changing the capacitor connection.
14.7 Note down the observations.

15 Operate a synchronous motor by changing field excitation.
15.1 Select required equipment, tools, machine and materials.
15.2 Sketch the circuit diagram.
15.3 Connect the instrument according to the diagram.
15.4 Check the circuit.
15.5 Change the field excitation.
15.6 Record armature and field current.
15.7 Draw the ‘V’ curve.
15.8 Note down the observations.

REFERENCE BOOKS
1. Electrical Technology  B. L. Theraja
2. Electrical Machine  Siskind

6631 DATA STRUCTURE & ALGORITHM T P C
3 3 4
AIMS
• To provide the knowledge & skill on data structures.
• To provide the knowledge & skill on writing simple algorithms.

SHORT DESCRIPTION
Data types, data structure and algorithm; Arrays, records, pointers and linked lists;
Stack, queue and recursion; Searching & sorting.

DETAIL DESCRIPTION

Theory :
DATA TYPES, DATA STRUCTURE AND ALGORITHM
1 Understand the idea of the data structure.
1.1 Define data & information.
1.2 State data types.
1.3 Define Memory Location, array, & list.
1.4 State the types of array, & list.
1.5 Define String.
1.6 Define data structure.
1.7 State the meaning of field, record and files.
1.8 Define stack & queue with example
1.9 Define trees , heaps, hashing function table & hashing table.

2 Understand the basic concept of Algorithm
2.1 State the characteristics of Algorithm
2.2 Define the pseudo code & algorithmic notations.
2.3 Describe the structured programming and flowcharts.
2.4 Describe the Complexity of Algorithm

ARRAYS, RECORDS, POINTERS AND LINKED LISTS.

3 Understand the concept of arrays, records and pointers.
3.1 Define linear array.
3.2 Write the algorithm for traversing linear arrays.
3.3 State the represent of linear array in Memory.
3.4 Write the algorithm for inserting and deleting elements into/from linear arrays.
3.5 Write the algorithm of matrix multiplication.
3.6 State the use of pointer arrays , Jagged array and records.

4 Understand the properties of the linked lists.
4.2 Describe the representation of linked lists in memory.
4.3 Write the algorithms to traverse a linked list.
4.4 Write the algorithms for searching a linked list.
4.5 Write the algorithms for inserting/deleting nodes into/from a linked list.

STACKS, QUEUES & RECURSION

5. Understand the Operation of Stack
5.1 State the meaning of the terms PUSH & POP.
5.2 Write the algorithm for adding or removing data into / from a Stack.
5.3 Describe the Polish and Reverse Polish Notation of arithmetic expression.
5.4 Describe the operation of Infix, Postfix & Prefix transformation.
5.5 Write the algorithms to transform Prefix expression into Prefix expression and vice versa.

6. Understand the Operation of Queue
6.1 Define Deques.
6.2 Describe Priority queues.
6.3 Write the algorithms for inserting/deleting data into/from queues.

7. Understand the Operation of Recursion.
7.1 Define Recursion
7.2 Explain the use of recursive subroutines.
7.3 Write the algorithms to compute N! and Fibonacci numbers by
recursive subroutines.

SEARCHING & SORTING
8 Understand the Operation of searching.
8.1 State the different techniques of searching.
8.2 Describe the linear and binary search algorithm.
8.3 Write the algorithms for linear & binary search.
8.4 Compare the complexity of linear & binary search algorithms.

9 Understand the Operation of sorting.
9.1 State the different techniques of Sorting.
9.2 Describe the technique of bubble sort, quick sort, heap sort, insertion
sort, selection sort and merge sort.
9.3 Write the algorithms for bubble sort, quick sort, heap sort, insertion
sort, selection sort and merge sort.
9.4 Compare the complexity of different sorting algorithms.

10. Understand the basics of Storing string
10.1 Define String
10.2 State the types of structures for storing strings.
10.3 Describe the Record – oriented , Fixed-Length storage procedure of strings.
10.4 State the advantages and disadvantages of record oriented, fixed-length storage .
10.5 Describe the process of variable length storage with fixed maximums.
10.6 Describe the process of linked storage structure.

Practical :
1. Write and Test a program for data insertion & Deletion in a Linear Array.
2. Write and Test a program for Multiplication of two Matrices
3. Write and Test a program for inserting/Deleting nodes into/from a Linked List.
4. Write and Test a program using PUSH and POP Operation in Stack.
5. Write and Test a program to convert an infix expression to postfix expression.
6. Write and Test a program for Data insertion and Deletion from a Queue.
7. Write and Test a program for N! and Fibonacci number using Recursion.
8. Write and Test a program to find out data using linear search and binary search.
9. Write and Test a program to arrange Data Ascending and Descending using Bubble Sort and Quick Sort.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

1. Data Structures
BY- Seymour Lipschutz (Schaum’s Outline Series)
2. Data Structure and Algorithm
By- Md. Mokter Hossain
Md. Masud Karim
Md. Moynul Hoque