Digital Electronics and Microprocessor


To provide the students with an opportunity to acquire knowledge, skill and attitude in the field of Digital Electronics and Microprocessor with special emphasis on:
• Number system, Binary arithmetic and codes
• Logic gates, ICs and Boolean Algebra
• Combinational and Sequential logic circuits
• Semi conductor memories, A/D and D/A converters
• Architecture of 8-bit Microprocessors
• Simple programming using the instruction set of 8085
• Peripheral chips compatible to 8-bit microprocessors.


Basic Digital Circuits; Numbers systems and codes; Combinational logic circuits; Flip-flops and shift registers; Counters; A/D and D/A converters; Semiconductor memories; 8085 microprocessors.


1 Understand Number systems and codes.
1.1 Describe binary, octal and Hexadecimal Number systems.
1.2 Convert one number system to another.
2.3 Compute binary, Octal and hexadecimal arithmetic.
2.4 Describe BCD Code, Excess- 3 Code, Gray Code, Alphanumeric Codes.
2.5 Convert one type of code to another.
2.6 Describe the method of error detection and correction by using Parity bit.
2.7 Describe the function of Hamming code.
2.8 Describe the applications of codes.

2 Understand the basic digital circuits.
2.1 Describe the digital signals.
2.2 State the main reasons for the widespread use of digital systems.
2.3 Describe AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR and XOR operations.
2.4 Describe the realization of basic logic operations using NAND and NOR gates.
2.5 Describe the boolean algebraic theorems.
2.6 Simplify the logic expressions by using boolean algebra.
2.7 Simplify the logic expressions by using Karnaugh map (upto 4 Variables).
2.8 Describe the characteristics of digital ICs.
2.9 Describe different types of digital logic families.

3 Understand Combinational Logic circuits.
3.1 Describe the operation of a digital multiplexer and demultiplexer.
3.2 Describe the operation of half adder and full adder.
3.3 Describe the operation of half subtractor and full subtractor.
3.4 Explain the function of arithmetic logic unit (ALU) with block diagram.
3.5 Describe the operation of digital comparators.
3.7 Describe the function of parity generator/checkers.
3.8 Describe the function of priority encoders and BCD-to-7 segment decoder with block diagram.

4 Understand the concept of Flip-Flops and shift registers.
4.1 Describe the operation of a sequential circuit with block diagram.
4.2 Describe the working principle of clocked S-R flip-flop, J-K flip-flop, Master-slave flip-flop, D-type flip-flop and T-type flip-flop.
4.3 State the applications of flip-flops.
4.4 Discuss the function of registers.
4.5 Describe the operation of shift registers.
4.6 Mention the applications of shift registers.
4.7 List some common ICs used as flip-flops and shift registers.

5 Understand the features of Counters.
5.1 Describe the operation of ripple or asynchronous counters.
5.2 Describe the principle of UP/DOWN counters.
5.3 Describe the modulus of the Counter.
5.4 Describe the operation of synchronous counters.
5.5 Explain the function of combination counter.
5.6 Discuss the principle of ring counter and Joson counters.
5.7 List some common ICs used as a counter with block diagram.

6 Understand the principles of A/D and D/A Converters.
6.1 Discuss the general principles of D/A and A/D conversion.
6.2 Describe the operation of weighted-resistor D/A converter.
6.3 Describe the operation of R-2R ladder D/A converter.
6.4 Explain the characteristics of D/A converter.
6.5 Describe the operation of sample and hold Circuits.
6.6 Describe the operation of parallel comparator A/D converter.
6.7 Describe the operation of successive-approximation A/D converter.
6.7 Describe the operation of dual-slope A/D converter.
6.8 Describe the use of A/D converter as voltage-to-frequency and voltage-to-time converters.
6.9 List some popular ICs used as A/D and D/A converters.

7 Understand the features of Semiconductor Memories.
7.1 Describe the operation of a memory device with block diagram.
7.2 Describe the concept of READ and WRITE operation of memories.
7.3 Mention the classification of memories.
7.4 Mention the characteristics of memories.
7.5 Discuss the principle of sequential memory.
7.6 Discuss the principles of ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM and Flash memory.
7.7 Mention the principle of static and dynamic RAM.
7.8 Identify some commercial memory ICs.
8 Understand the features of Simple Microprocessors (8-bit)
8.1 Describe the block diagram of a digital Computer.
8.2 Define Microprocessor..
8.3 Describe the architecture of 8085 microprocessor.
8.4 Describe the pin diagram and function of each pin of Intel 8085 microprocessors.
8.5 Describe the registers of Intel 8085 microprocessors.
8.6 Differentiate between microcontrollers and microprocessors.

9 Understand the Programming of 8085 Microprocessors.
9.1 Describe the instruction set of 8085 microprocessors.
9.2 Explain the addressing modes of the Intel 8085 microprocessors.
9.3 Mention the simple programs using the 8085 instructions.

10 Understand the 8085 microprocessor system.
10.1 Draw a 8085 based computer.
10.2 Explain the process of demultiplexing AD7 -AD0 bus using latch.
10.3 Describe the technique of generate control signals.
10.4 Mention the function of interrupt controls and serial I/O controls.
10.5 Differentiate between memory mapped I/O and standard I/O.
9.6 Discuss the function of programmable peripheral Interface (PPI), programmable DMA controller and programmable interrupt controller (PIC).
9.7 Discuss the function of Programmable Interval Timer and Programmable Communication Interface.
9.8 List 8-it, 16-bit, 32 bit and 64-bit Microprocessors.


1. Verify truth tables of logic gates.
2. Construct basic gates with NAND and NOR gates and verify the truth tables.
3. Make circuits of adder & subtractor and verify the truth tables.
4. Make circuits of different flip-flops and verify the truth tables.
5. Make circuits of different shift registers and observe their operations.
6. Make circuits of different counters and observe their operations.
7. Study the operation of A/D converters.
8. Study the operation of D/A converters.
9. Study the hardware of a microprocessor based single board computer (8 bit/16 bit).
10. Make the simple programs using the 8085 instruction set and test them on 8085 trainer.

1. Digital fundamentals -Floyed
2. Modern Digital Electronics -R.P. Jain
3. Microprocessor Architecture, Programming and Applications withr 8085 -Ramesh S Gaonkar

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